Emerging Scenario of Social Development
in 21st Century
The International community especially several Governments recognize the valuable role of non-government organizations (NGOs) and works with them to deliver welfare services for social development and it is not a new phenomena. Voluntary organizations have grown tremendously in numbers as well as in activities during the last 2-3 decades all over the World. There are approximately 4 million voluntary organizations in the world. In India, including the Self Help Groups federations etc., there are about a million.
UN bodies such as viz. International Labor Organization (ILO). United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), The United Development Program (UNDP), THE United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIOFEM) are actively contributing to the growth of social development. Whether it is USA, Canada, India, South Africa, Mexico, Zambia or Indonesia thousands of not to profit organizations are involved in a variety of activities of social development.
Multilateral development banks such as African Development Bank, Asia Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International American Development Bank and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation are also actively working for the social development.
Along with the multilateral development banks, international foundations also contributing their efforts to social development like The ASIA Development Trust (Japan), W.K. Kellogg Foundation (USA), Ford Foundation (UK), Bernard Van Leer Foundation (NT land), Foundation CODESPA (Spain), The John D. and Catherine T. Macarthur Foundation (USA), Rockefeller Brothers Foundation (USA), Welcome Trust (UK), Foundation de France (France), Foundation Roi Baudouin (Belgium), the Soros Network of Foundation and Aga Khan Foundation (SWZ), ICFE (India-Canadian Environment Facility), Miseries, Plan International, Save the Children, OXFAM International, Action Aid and Christian Children’s Fund and so on.
Government of India also has taken number of initiatives after independent to social development. Indian Government primarily focused on agriculture sector during the 1950s. Further, India focused on industrial revolution for rapid development process in 1960s.
And poverty alleviation programmes were initiated in 1970s and 80s. More over, Government of India broadly focused on Human development during 1990s and in the last decade of 20th century and rights based campaign in the 21st century. Thus, social development is emerging as a very important sector along side Information Technology.
Some of the major International NGOs and Voluntary Organizations are working for the social development in the world viz Catholic Institute For International Relations, Center For Strategic and International Studies, Centre For International Environmental Law, Christian Aid, Foundation For International Environmental Law (Field), International Coalition For Development Action (ICDA), International Institute For Sustainable Development, Oxfam, People's Forum 2001, Swiss Coalition Of Development Organizations, The Gaia Foundation, World Business Council For Sustainable Development, World Vision International. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are core canons for human development.
The above mentioned international organizations, foundations, multilateral banks, religious trusts and service clubs and membership associations are broadly working for the Environmental restoration, Organic farming, Rural development, poverty Alleviation and Livelihoods, Education, Health, Renewable energy, Appropriate building technologies, Innovative urban planning, Arts and culture.
According to Indian NGOs Funds-Report (2004-05), world wide so many developed nations are funding for the social development. Most of the funding from donor countries directly goes to leading developmental organizations such as NGOs, Trusts and NPOs. There are only a few top donor countries mentioned here. The US leads in the list of donor countries followed by Germany and UK.
Rs (In crores)
There are number of developmental organizations, trusts and foundations working for the cause of social development. Some of international level organizations or foundations are financially helping in large amount for the social development. Here, the leading and top donor agencies mentioned.
Rs (In crores)
Under the Foreign Contribution Registration Act, the NGOs number doubled during the period of 1993-94 to 2002-03.
Year wise registered NGOs for Foreign Aid
Several thinkers such as Amartya Sen have focused on social development and elaborately dealt of how education, health, sanitation and environment are very important for survival and development of Human kind. There are a few important areas of social development. These are as follows:
· Create an economic, political, social, cultural and legal environment that will enable people to achieve social development;
· Eradicate absolute poverty by a target date to be set by each country;
· Support full employment as a basic policy goal;
· Promote social integration based on the enhancement and protection of all human rights;
· Achieve equality and equity between women and men;
· Attain universal and equitable access to education and primary health care;
· Ensure that structural adjustment programmes include social development goals;
· Increase resources allocated to social development;
· Strengthen cooperation for social development through the UN.
There is also sector wise improvement for foreign aid registration for the developmental organizations for the social development especially for the NGOs. The table gives the sector wise information on fund distribution through the foreign gives.
Sector wise Distribution of Foreign Aid for NGO’s
Number of NGOs have increased in between 1995-96 to 2004-05. The increase of NGOs number is indicating the importance of NGOs in social development increasing day by day. According to the Indian NGOs Funds Report (2004-05), NGOs Registered/Reporting and amount of money received is shown below.
(in Rs crores)
United Nations has been playing a very proactive role for social development for decades. Several organizations such as UNICEF, UNEP, UNESCAP, UNDP, & UNESCO are very actively contributing for the growth of social development.
Several convention of UN on women, children, disabled, youth, and senior citizens have been held by UN Agencies resulting in promotive laws, policies, programmes, and schemes for welfare of various sections of the society.
Global Major Funding Agencies
NGOs mostly depend upon funding from individual donors, foundations, corporations and governments. Critics charge that funding sources can seriously affect NGO policy, making these organizations potentially the creatures of special interests. Such charges challenge NGO legitimacy especially when funds come from "outside" - including rich foreign governments, corporations or foundations.
UN and Agencies
UN agencies such as UNESCO, UNICEF, ILO, and WHO, UNIOFEM are the major funding sources for NGO in social development.
UNESCO and Funds for NGOs
UNESCO is a UN’s internal part and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded on 16 November 1945. For this specialized United Nations agency, it is not enough to build classrooms in devastated countries or to publish scientific breakthroughs. Education, Social and Natural Science, Culture and Communication are the means to a far more ambitious goal to build peace in the minds of people.
At present, UNESCO is functioning as a hub of ideas and a standard-setter to forge universal agreements on emerging ethical issues. The Organization also serves as a clearinghouse for the dissemination and sharing of information and knowledge while helping member states to build their human and institutional capacities in diverse fields. It also promotes international co-operation among its 192 Member States and six Associate Members in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.
UNESCO is working to create the conditions for genuine dialogue based upon respect for shared values and the dignity of each civilization and culture.
Through its strategies and activities, UNESCO is actively pursuing the Millennium Development Goals, especially those aiming to:
· halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty in developing
countries by 2015
· achieve universal primary education in all countries by 2015
· eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2015
· Help countries implement a national strategy for sustainable development by 2005 to reverse current trends in the loss of environmental resources by 2015.
UNESCO also contributes for the social development funds by NGOs in allover the world. UNESCO cooperates with intergovernmental organizations, in particular the United Nations and its organizations and other intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). UNESCO also cooperates with intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and so far it has signed agreements with 87 International Government Organizations.
UNESCO maintains close collaboration and operational relations with a number of multilateral organizations, including the European Union Institutions, particularly the European Commission and Multilateral Development Banks. Since its inception, UNESCO has recognized that non-governmental organizations and foundations which have concerns close to its own play an important role in international cooperation in the service of peoples.
For more than a half-century, UNESCO has woven a valuable tapestry of cooperative relations with a number of such organizations in its fields of competence, thereby enabling it to work with civil society in achieving its objectives and to disseminate through them its democratic and ethical ideals.
Since its foundation, UNESCO has given great importance to partnership with civil society organizations, in particular NGOs. The role of civil society representatives is increasingly important in every sector of daily life, and partnership with civil society organizations is becoming indispensable for governmental organizations in pursuing their strategic objectives.
In front of the impressive vitality of the non-governmental organizations, the steady growth in their number and their increasing role, UNESCO was led to review its relations with them with the aim of finding new synergies and cooperative arrangements that would be more suited to the challenges of the 21st century.
NGOs and Its Relations with UNESCO
There are different forms to maintain relations with NGO. The following are explains the type of relations with UNESCO.
Established in response to the need to extend cooperation between UNESCO and NGOs and to back up the Organization's efforts to achieve a more active presence in the field, operational relations are aimed at achieving a flexible and dynamic partnership in the implementation of UNESCO's programmes. NGOs maintaining operational relations with UNESCO are valued partners owing to their active presence and concrete action in the field, the expertise they represent, and their ability to channel the concerns of the people.
Formal relations are aimed at sustained cooperation with UNESCO in its fields of competence both upstream and downstream from the Organization's programming and priorities. Admission is granted to international NGOs that are widely representative and expert in their field of activity, and are recognized as having a genuinely international structure and membership. Formal relations are themselves sub-divided into two types, consultative or associate, depending on the role and structure of the NGO itself.
The management of programmes undertaken by UNESCO is the responsibility of programme Sectors within the Secretariat. Questions relating to such programmes can be addressed to the Section for non-governmental organizations (ERC/RPO/NGO) which will forward them to the relevant departments. Additional information may also be obtained from NGO focal points in UNESCO programme sectors.
UNICEF and NGOs
Focus areas of the UNICEF
UNICEF’s Drought Mitigation Project in Madhya Pradesh: 2001-2003
Large tracts of India are prone to droughts. 68 percent of India’s land mass is drought-prone to varying degrees, of which about 50 percent is chronically drought-prone. As per Government of India’s estimate, there are one or two years of droughts every five years in semi-arid and arid regions of India. Every year, GoI spends millions on relief for creating employment, providing water supply, food grains and fodder to mitigate the impacts of droughts. With a view to enhance drought proofing, GoI has accorded high priority to its watershed development program. This is evident from the fact that GoI has developed a perspective plan of 20 years (2002-03 to 2021-22) for treating around 88.5 mha of land with a total investment of Rs. 727.5 billion.
UNICEF Water and Environmental Programme in India 1996 - 1998
The water and environmental sanitation (WES) programme in India is the longest running and one of the most prominent WES programmes that UNICEF supports in countries around the world. Although the amount of UNICEF financial support in relation to total government expenditures is small, UNICEF has played an important and catalytic role in developing, testing and advocating key technological and institutional changes that influenced government policy and investment priorities to expand WES services to the Indian population. These included large-scale government investments in rural water supply and sanitation and the adoption of new drilling techniques, contributions to the implementation of a successful hand pump-based rural water supply programme and exponential increases in water supply coverage.
International Funds for NGOs
The following is a list of some of relief funds approved by the Treasurer, under subsection 78(21) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 or sub-section 30-85 (2) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997. This list has been prepared from information supplied by the Australian Taxation Office.
· ADRA (Adventist Development and Relief Agency) Overseas Aid Fund
· AESOP Foundation
· African Enterprise Aid and Development Fund
· Agios Ministries 'Heart Reach Australia' Overseas Aid Fund
· Air Malayan Nursing Scholarship Fund
· Anglican Trust Fund for Development
· APACE Overseas Development Assistance Fund
· APCM Overseas Aid and Relief Fund
· APHEDA Overseas Project Fund
· Archbishop of Melbourne's International Relief and Development Fund
· Archbishop of Sydney's Overseas Relief and Aid Fund
· Asiac (Vic) International Aid Fund
· Asian Aid Org Ltd Developing Countries Aid Fund
· Assisi Aid Projects India Inc
· Association for India's Development Australia Inc
· Association of Apex Clubs of Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Austcare Distribution Fund
· Australian Aid for Lebanon Appeal
· Australian Baptist World Aid Inc Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian Doctors International Relief Fund
· Australian Foundation for International Credit Union Development International Projects Fund
· Australian Foundation for the Peoples of Asia and the Pacific Ltd
· Australian Himalayan Foundation Ltd - Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian ICEE Developing Countries Relief Fund
· Australian Jesuit Mission Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian Kokoda Track Foundation Fund
· Australian Lasallian (Asia/Pacific) Developing Countries Aid Fund
· Australian Lions Foundation
· Australian Lutheran World Service
· Australian Marist Centre Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian Red Cross
· Australian Rotary Foundation Trust
· Australian Ryder-Cheshire Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian Salesian Mission Overseas Aid Fund
· Australian Volunteers International Donations Account
· Australian Children's Fund Inc
· Bible Society In Australia Inc Overseas Literacy Development Fund
· BODHI Australia Overseas Relief Fund
· Burnet Institute
· Bushikori Christian Centre - Orphan Support Aus Inc
· Cambodian Aid Public Fund
· Campaigners for Christ PNG Overseas Aid Fund
· Care Australia Project Fund
· Caritas Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· CBMI (Australia) Overseas Development Fund
· Christian Brothers Foundation Overseas Aid Fund
· Christian Children’s Fund of Australia Ltd
· Christian Nationals Developing Countries Aid Fund
· Church Missionary Society Overseas Society
· Churches of Christ Overseas Aid
· CMS Overseas Aid Fund
· Columbian Overseas Aid Fund
· Compassion Overseas Aid and Development Fund
· Co-Operation in Development Australia
· CoptiCare Relief Fund
· Cranio-Maxillo Facial Overseas Aid Fund
· Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Overseas Aid Fund
· Divine Life Society Australia Inc Overseas Aid Fund
· Divine Word Missionaries Incorporated Aid Fund
· Dominic Ryan Peace Project Foundation Limited Overseas Relief Fund
· Equal Health Australian Health Professionals Overseas Aid Fund
· Every Home for Christ Overseas Aid Fund
· Family Planning Australia Incorporated Overseas Aid Fund
· For Those Who Have Less - Action Aid Aust. Ltd Special Overseas Aid Fund
· Foresight (Australian Overseas Aid & Prevention Of Blindness) Fund
· Franciscan Missionary Union Aitape Diocese PNG Development Fund
· Fred Hollows Foundation Inc. Overseas Aid Fund
· Friends of Hogar de Cristo (Australia)
· Friends of Ermera
· GK ANCOP Australia Development Fund
· Global Development Group Overseas Relief Fund
· Grace Ministries Overseas Aid Fund
· Habitat for Humanity Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Hamlin Fistula Welfare and Research Ltd Relief and Aid Fund
· Health and Development Aid Abroad Relief Fund
· Helping Children Smile
· Hope Worldwide (Australia) Overseas Aid Fund
· Indian Aid Incorporated Overseas
· Indian Child Labour Overseas Aid Fund
· Indigo Foundation Relief Fund
· International Children’s Aid Limited - Overseas Aid Fund
· International Children's Care (Australia) Inc Relief Fund
· International Christian Aid Relief Enterprises Overseas Aid Fund
· International Needs Overseas
· International Women’s Development Agency Overseas Aid Fund
· Interplant Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Interserve Overseas Aid Fund
· John Fawcett Foundation Fund
· Katoke Trust for Overseas Aid
· King Solomon Island Learning Centre Relief Fund Philippines
· Leprosy Mission Australia
· Marie Stopes International Australia Overseas Development Fund
· Medicines Sans Frontieres Australia Overseas Fund
· Melbourne Overseas Missions Fund Inc
· Mercy Ships Australia Relief Fund
· Missionaries of St Andrew Anglican Aid Abroad
· Mission World Aid Overseas Fund
· Muslim Aid Australia Inc Overseas Aid Fund
· NCCA Christian World Service Overseas Program
· NCCA Christian World Service Refugee Resettlement Fund
· NCWA Overseas Development Assistance Fund
· Nepal Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Nicaraguan Assistance Fund
· NTA Overseas Relief Fund
· Oblate Mission Indonesia
· Operation Smile Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Opportunity International Australia Ltd
· Orthopedic Outreach Fund
· Overseas Specialist Surgical Association of Australia Relief Fund
· Oxfam Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Oz Green Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (Australia) Incorporated
· The Pioneers Ministries Foundation
· Palms Overseas Fund
· Plan International Australia Overseas Aid Account
· PLC Sydney Overseas Aid Fund
· Project Adoption
· Project Vietnam Inc
· Quaker Service Australia Inc Overseas Aid Fund
· RedR Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Reledev Australia Limited Overseas Aid Fund
· Rotary Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· SAACID - Australia Incorporated
· Salvation Army (Australia) Self Denial Fund (For Overseas Aid)
· Samaritans Purse Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· Save the Children Fund Australia
· Save the Children Fund (Western Australian Division) Inc
· SFI Overseas Aid Fund
· Simaid Trust
· Sisters of Mercy Overseas Aid
· St Joseph Australian Peruvian Mission Associates Inc
· Tear Fund (Australia) Developing Countries Aid Fund
· The Catholic Mission
· United Nations Children's Fund
· Vellore Christian Medical College and Hospital Support Fund
· War Child Australia Relief Fund
· Water aid Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· World Families Australia Incorporated Sponsorship Programme
· World Relief Overseas Aid Fund
· World Vision of Australia Overseas Aid Fund
· World Youth International Benevolent Trust
· WWF Australia
· Youth Off the Streets Limited - Overseas Relief Fund
The government of India is working for the social development through Ministries and various government departments such as mentioned below:
· Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
· Ministry of Education
· Ministry of Environment
· Ministry of Human Resource Development
· Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources
· Ministry of Rural Development
· Khadi and Village Industries Commission
· Ministry of Science and Technology and so on
In India, some of the business houses are also working for the social development along with the governmental organizations through the establishment of special social development wings in their business, such organizations are as follows:
· Dr. Reddy’s Foundation
· Byrraju Foundation
· Indian Oil Corporation
· Reliance group of Industries
· Indian Tobacco Comp[any
· Modi Charitable Trust
· LANCO Lights
· Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
· Sri Aurobindo Memorial Fund
· Tata Energy Research Institute
· J.R.D Tata Trust
· Infosis Foundation
· State Bank of Hyderabad
· Andhra Bank
· Hindustan Petroleum
· GMR Constructions
· Birla Group
· Ambuja Cement
· ACC Cements
· Indian Railways
· Hindustan Zinc
· Visakhapatnam Steel Plant
· Singareni Calories
· ING Vysya Bank
· Nagarjuna Fertilizers Chemicals Limited
· Satyam Computers
· Larsen and Turbo
In India National literacy Mission, National employment guarantee scheme, waste lands development board, Eco development board, several National commissions’ viz., woman commission, commission for disabled etc., have to a great extent contributed in promoting social development.
The Government of India’s budget allocation for the cause of social development in 2006-2007 is given below:
Rural Development a integral part of social development is being given fillip by Government of India in a great manner. The financial outlays, programmes and schemes have been tremendously in creased to this sector.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT and BASIC SERVICES
Government of India’s some of the elements of social development and its achievements given in below table:
Through out the World not to profit organization sector has tremendously grown. There is growth in the organizations as well as the activities. Several International funding Agencies (Developmental Agencies) have emerged over the years viz. DFID, CIDA, SIDA, CARE, Action Aid, CCF, Oxfam, plan International and many such organizations are funding the projects of social development.
The non profit organizations are playing very important role in the America’s economy. In 2004 NPOs contributed about 5 per cent of the GDP to America economy. Atr present, there are 783,436 registered non profit organizations working for the social development. Employment in the non profit sector is growing more rapidly than in the business sector.
The American Association of Fundraising Counsel (AAFRC) reported the following national totals:
DFID’s national programme in India supports nationwide initiatives of the Indian Government, civil society and the private sector in these three areas. The National Programme has a focus upon the provision of services and pro-poor economic growth. DFID’s main focus on poverty-reduction strategies is concentrated at state level. DFID especially is funding in these areas such as Health, Education and promoting pro-poor and building partnerships.
There are more than four million Non governmental organizations in the World. In India including self help group’s federations, various committees etc., there are one millions NGOs actively working for the cause of social development.
NGOs in several parts of the World are involved in a variety of activities viz advocacy, awareness creation and motivation, unionization, social mobilization, providing various services, infrastructure creation, rural roads, sanitation, environment, empowerment of poor, women, children, youth & disabled and several others activities.
Many of the international development organizations are focusing on disaster management, and relief work, earth quakes, tsunami, Katrina etc., several organizations are working against arms, prevention of land mines disasters and rehabilitation of victim of land mine disasters. The work of DIANA against land mines is well known.
There are several International celebrities such as Aga Khan of Aga Khan Foundation, Bill Clinton, and Anna Hazarded who are relentlessly working for the cause of social development all over the World.
World Bank has been focusing on poverty reduction, resources development and social development for several decades. The Bank has been a very active supporter of NGOs working for the causes of social development.
Several other International development agencies such as FAO, UNEP, ADB, JAICA, UNIDO etc., have been supporting the NGOs working for the cause of social development.
Several embassies all over the World are supporting the cause of social development by funding NGO projects.
Several universities and learning centers are also funding NGO projects and social development. Several religious institutions all over the World viz church based organizations, Temple based, mosque based gurudwara based or another religion association based organizations have been focusing on education, health, sanitation, disabilities environment and self employment of people all over the World.
The work of the Puttaparthi Sai Baba trust in various walks of life likes educational institutions, Hospitals, rural drinking water, water conservation & harvesting, florosis control and many other areas is very wall known. Similarly several other religious trusts are supporting the cause of social development viz, Mahesh Yogi Trust, Art of living of Ravishankar, Mata Amritamayis Trust, Chinajiyar Swamis Trust, Ganapathi sachandananda Trust, Swami Ram Dev Trust, etc.
Several visionary industrialists in India and in several countries of the World have started their social development outfits such as TATAs Trust, Birlas Trust, Ambanis Trust, Reddy Labs, Nagajuna fertilizes etc.
Another fast emerging area is corporate social responsibility. Several corporate companies have been supporting social development through their social development out fits. Micro Soft, Infosys, DELL, and many other Multinational companies are working for the cause of social development.
In India and in other countries several public sector undertaking are also working for the cause of social development viz NTPC, BHEL, HP, ECIL, & ONGC etc., by supporting appropriate interventions through several NGOs in the sector.
Government of India is funding NGOs to a tune of nearly Rs. 10,000 crores per annum. Several ministries have displayed the details on their websites. CAPART, wastelands development board, KVIC etc., are very well known for their support to social development through NGO sector.
Social development is offering employment opportunities to the professionals working in the sector. Several colleges, universities, Government institution and NGOs Institution are offering several courses to the social workers working in this sector. There are lakhs of jobs being provided by NGOs corporate social responsibility institutions and religious trusts all over the World.
The information, education & Communications campaign is offering millions of dollars of International Business.
Information Technology is playing a great role in social development. IT and IT enabled services can revolutionize the process of social development and social change. GIS & GPS are playing a very important role in resources development all over the world.
There are several linkages of social development with environment & Natural resources development. Environmental conservation & development, integrated watershed development in promoting the cause of social development in a big way.
There are several polices being brought in by Govt. of India through planning commission, various Ministers, and various organization for the cause of social development.
The resources from International development agencies through FCRA, Exemption under 35 AC of Income tax etc., are being promoted, supported and regulated in a big manner by Government of India.
Challenges for Social Development
Some of the important social problems like poverty, ignorance, over-population and rural backwardness are of a general nature and, in varying degree, they are influenced by factors like squalor and bad housing, malnutrition and physical and mental ill-health, neglected childhood, family disorganization and a low standard of living.
For along time, society has remained apathetic to these conditions, but with the awakening of political consciousness and the enthusiasm of organizations and workers to improve social conditions, there is a possibility of developing programmes which could gradually remedy the present situation. The economic programmes of the Five Year Plan will mitigate these problems to some extent, but the gains of economic development have to be maintained and consolidated by well-conceived and organized social welfare programmes spread over the entire country. It is proposed to consider some of the more important problems of social welfare which need the special attention of both State and private welfare agencies.
The principal social welfare problems relate to women, children, youth, the family, under-privileged groups and social service. The social health of any community will depend a great deal upon the status, functions and responsibilities of the woman in the family and in the community. Social conditions should give to the woman opportunities for creative self-expression, so that she can make her full contribution towards the economic and social life of the community. Problems relating to health, maternity and child welfare, education and employment.
Some problems of women have to be dealt through social legislation, but other problems pertaining to health, social education, vocational training, and increased participation in social and cultural life, provision of shelter, and assistance to the handicapped or maladjusted call for programmes at the community level. As women have to fulfill heavy domestic and economic responsibilities, adequate attention has to be paid to the need for relaxation and recreation both in the homes as well as in the community.
The welfare agencies have catered to some extent to the needs of the widow and the destitute woman, but the quality of the service rendered by them and the nature of their work needs to be surveyed.
Considering the numbers involved, the needs of children should receive much greater consideration than is commonly given to them. There is a growing demand for child health services and educational facilities. The standard of child welfare services in the country can be improved if the rate of increase in population is reduced. Problems relates to family planning, children's health, infant mortality, education, training and development have been discussed elsewhere in this report.
Malnutrition is perhaps the major cause of ill-health and lack of proper growth of the child. The feeding of the child in the early years is the responsibility of the family, and is dependent upon economic conditions and traditional food habits. The nature and extent of malnutrition has to be determined, and resources have to be found to supplement and improve the diet of children through schools and community and child welfare agencies.
The problem of children's recreation and development outside educational institutions has received some attention during recent years, but play activities of children are considerably restricted in urban areas on account of the environmental conditions, lack of adequate space, and, to some extent, neglect of this vital need of the child by the family and the community. Not enough is known about the work of private agencies for the welfare of destitute and homeless children.
The juvenile courts and children's aid societies have so far touched a fringe of the problem of children's welfare. Certain special aspects may be briefly mentioned. The existing facilities for handicapped and deficient children are far from adequate and suitable agencies have to be created. Hospitals provide treatment for polio, congenital deformities, fractures, bone disorders and other diseases, but there is a need to extend existing services and provide special institutions and care for disabled and crippled children.
At present deficient children attend educational institutions together with normal children and seldom receive treatment and special training to enable them to overcome their handicaps. The subject needs to be studied carefully. The problem of juvenile delinquency has already received considerable attention and many of the States have special legislation. Juvenile delinquency may often be the result of poverty and many offences may be traced to the connivance or support of adults.
The youth constitute the most vital section of the community. In recent years, young people have had to face and have been increasingly conscious of problems such as inadequate educational facilities, unemployment, and lack of opportunity for social development, national service and leadership. The problems of health, education and employment of youth have been considered as aspects of national problems in these fields.
Social welfare is primarily concerned with the improvement of services provided for the benefit of youth by welfare agencies with the object of promoting development of character and training for citizenship and for physical, intellectual and moral fitness. It is necessary to encourage initiative among youth so that through their own organizations, they can develop programmes of youth welfare and national service. Ways must also be found to give opportunities to youth for active participation in constructive activity. Such training and experience will equip them for shouldering the responsibilities of leadership in different spheres of national life.
Traditionally, the family has been left largely to its own resources to deal with most of its problems, although in some cases it may be assisted by the larger community groups (such as caste) to which a family may belong. General problems relates to health, education and employment. Questions relating to status and rights, property, inheritance, etc., are the subject of social legislation.
The gradual break-up of the joint family and the emergence of the small family have increased its economic problems and burdens. Family responsibilities have now to be borne at a comparatively younger age by the head of the small family than happened in the joint family. This creates the need for greater guidance and assistance in dealing with family problems. The increasing complexity of the social situation and handicaps arising from physical disability, ailment or unemployment render it more difficult for the family to provide a sense of security to its members.
This fact suggests a number of problems which, along with other problems such as divorce, desertion, and treatment of mal-adjusted members of the family, need to be studied carefully if welfare agencies are to develop suitable methods of treatment for guiding and assisting those in need.
There are a number of under-privileged communities such as the scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and other backward classes including criminal tribes. The problems of poverty, ill-health, and lack of opportunities for development affect them to a larger extent than many other sections of the society.
The main problems to be considered under the description of social vice are prostitution, crime and delinquency, alcoholism, gambling and beggary. These problems have existed for a long period, although necessarily their nature and extent vary according to the prevailing social and economic conditions. Some of them have to be dealt with largely by local communities, and the approach and treatment have to be varied from place to place.
The character and magnitude of these problems of social defense have to be determined carefully before the value and efficacy of the existing agencies and programmes could be assessed. Social legislation deals with many of the social evils with a view to controlling and even eradicating them, but its actual implementation needs to be watched.
Among the practical problems to be resolved are the demarcations of the relative roles of State and private agencies, determination of the machinery of enforcement, estimation of the resources required, examination of methods, development of correct programmes, and creation of public opinion in favour of an objective and dispassionate approach to the problems of social vice.
As the social structure becomes more complex, the State is called upon to play an increasing role in providing services for the welfare of the people. The Central Government, the various State Governments and local self-governing bodies, each in its own sphere, have to ensure that they have at least the minimum administrative machinery for dealing with social "problems. What form this machinery takes will depend on their particular circumstances and requirements, but it is certain that without the necessary machinery they will not be able to pursue their programmes.
Training for Social Work
The contribution which social services make will depend to a considerable extent upon personnel and leadership. A general understanding of the philosophy and history of social work, the structure and functions of society, the nature and extent of social problems, the methods and techniques of social work, and of the details of the programmes and how best their results may be assessed, will help improve the quality and efficacy of all services organized by State and private agencies. The training of social workers should of course include knowledge of conditions prevailing in fields in which they are to work, and social workers must possess the spirit of service and the character and energy to execute programmes despite handicaps and limitations and with such resources-as may be readily available.
There are several schools of social work in India and the setting up of some other institutions on similar lines is being contemplated in some of the States. There are important problems involved in these institutions which require specially qualified and experienced personnel, careful selection of candidates for training, special training for fields in which there is scope for employment, and adequate opportunities for field-work experience. Trained social workers are needed in large numbers for rural areas. It should be possible for the existing schools of social work to draw students from rural areas and to arrange for their training in the field in selected centers organized by rural welfare agencies. Universities and colleges in or near rural areas could also develop training programmes for rural development. Agricultural colleges could introduce intensive social welfare courses and field-work 'programmes as part of their curricula. Similar institutions with greater emphasis on social anthropology could be created in tribal' areas.
It is not possible for many voluntary organizations in the country to employ highly trained personnel for their ordinary programmes and activities. It is, therefore, necessary to arrange for training at the community level for field workers, instructors and supervisors. The existing schools of social work, specialized social service agencies, social welfare agencies functioning at the national and State level should provide opportunities for such training. Arrangements for ` in-service' training should also be made by the larger voluntary organizations which have worked in the field of social welfare for many years. Further, arrangements have to te made for the training of voluntary workers who will be needed in large numbers during the coming years. It is especially desirable that voluntary administrative and field personnel should be given some elementary training in social work.
The emergence of State social services and of large central organizations to deal with important social problems and the lack of opportunities for higher training in the social sciences within the country indicate the need in selected cases for training and study abroad in specialized fields. It is necessary that persons who go abroad for training should first have sufficient knowledge and experience of Indian conditions and problems.
Suggestions for Social Development
There are several important issues which require detailed deliberation in social development.
The Issues are:-
1. Considering the fast growth of social development sector in 21st century there is need for Government of India to take a proactive role for multisectoral coordination and convergence of various role players involved in social development for which several Ministries of Govt. of India are required to be sensitized.
2. Need for greater transparency and Accountability in the sector. The world’s leading human rights, environmental and social development international organizations such as Action Aid International, AMNESTY International, and Green Peace International, Oxfam International, Save the Children International and World YWCA have today publicly endorsed the first global accountability charter for the non-profit sector to act as responsible players for social development.
International NGOs play an increasingly influential role. Global public opinion surveys show higher trust in NGOs than in government and business. In addition to an internal desire to be transparent and accountable, the accountability charter also seeks to demonstrate that NGOs deeply value public trust
In an unprecedented step, international civil society organizations have come together to demonstrate their commitment to transparency and accountability. This initiative builds on the individual, national and sectoral initiatives taken by international NGOs to set standards of accountability and codes of conduct.
3. Need for greater respect, appreciation and support to the social workers. The reason for this they are the key actors for the overall development.
Every part of social development sector depends upon their ability and responsibility. Efficient and effective social workers will be made by the concerned NGOs. NPOs, NGOs and other developmental organizations and foundations are needed to respect and appreciate the social workers.
The lack of social workers and the continuous high turnover of social workers weaken the quality and availability of the service given to clients especially for the poor. The lack of competent personnel may lead to the loss of the basic social rights intended in the constitution. Reasons for the lack of social workers are low pay, lack of leadership and heavy workload.
In order to improve the availability of social workers and their quality work it is suggested that social workers should have the opportunity to participate in continuing education and supervision of work.
4. Need for further promotive policies of activities self groups, micro credit & market avenues for the productivity self help groups. NGOs can promote the policies for self help groups and micro finance. There is strong relation between the self help groups and micro credit system at present scenario.
In India self help groups are extensively working as primary tools towards poverty alleviation and empowerment. National and state government initiatives, as well as NGOs efforts, have used SHGs to implement poverty alleviation programmes in Andhra Pradesh since 1979.
Micro credit is emerged as strong weapon to eradicate poverty through self sustainable with the help of NGOs, micro finance institutions and banks. At present scenario of social development with relation to
5. Need for clear distinction and clarity of Micro Credit & Micro Finance. Mainly SHGs are the prime clients for the Micro and Micro Finance. Banks or financial institutions need to clarify the difference between these two things, because banks are main sources for the micro credit or finance.
Micro credit and micro fiancé, often used synonymously, is very popular terms in recent developmental activities. This is creating huge confusion and misunderstanding in developmental activities. Professor Muhammad Yunus mentioned this problem with some sarcasm in his address to the International Seminar on Attacking Poverty with Micro Credit, held in Dhaka on 8 and 9 January 2003: The word micro credit did not exist before the seventies. Now it has become a catchword developmental practitioner. In the process, the word now means everything to everybody.
Micro credit caters commercial needs of poor for enabling them to raise their income levels and improve standard of living. Micro credit means more emphasis on loans while micro fiancé also includes support services where you open up channels for thrift, market assistance, technical assistance, capacity building, insurance, social and cultural programmes. So where there is micro finance is credit plus, there only micro credit is credit.
Micro credit financial requirements are generally not meant for economic development activities, but for consumptive needs like it education of a child, medicinal requirements etc. Here quantum are quite low, needs are very emergent, and there is hardly any difference between the consumptive purpose and productive purpose.
6. Need for coordinating Agencies & mechanism both at Govt. of India and at various State Govt. levels. Need for coordinating Agencies and mechanism both at Government of India and at various State Government level. Coordinating agencies and mechanism helps in brining the all NGOs together and facilitate for better work in social development with the help of government machineries.
More over, these instruments helps to form networks at all level including international, national, state and local level. This body can also coordinate NGO movements in each country.
7. Need for enabling policies both by centre and states. The social problems of contemporary India are the result of a complex nexus between the factors of exclusion and inclusion rooted in history, values, and cultural ethos. Many of these problems could not addressed by the development strategy launched since independence. Recent policies of globalization have further undermined the role larger societal norms as well as the state apparatus that could counter exclusionary forces. The agenda of social development has remained unfinished, keeping social tensions simmering.
During the 7th five-year plan, polices were helped to achieved the targeted social development goals, in terms of establishment of social infrastructure, especially in rural areas. The 8th five year plan identified “human development” as its main focus, with health and population control listed as two of six priority objectives. It was emphasized that health facilities must reach the entire population by the end of the 8th plan. The plans also identified people initiative and participation as a key element. With the enactment of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act (1992), Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) were revitalized and a process of democratic decentralization ushered in, with similar provisions made for urban local bodies, municipalities and nagar palikas.
Today, however, in the policy debate, ongoing orthodox economic liberalism is giving way to concerns regarding social consequences of globalization, as it affects the poorest and the marginalized sections of the population. Thus, a number of highly important and far-reaching social policy measures have been brought on to the development agenda, in the form of the right to information act, rural employment guarantee act, the rural health mission among others.
8. Need for capacity building of Govt. Officials, NGOs and gross root level activists and stake holders of social development. Several international and national conferences identify an effective leadership role of the NGOs as social development channels.
Capacity building can be defined as “development, fostering and support of infrastructure, resources and relationships for NGOs and related systems and services, at Member States, organizational, inter-organizational, and regional and systems levels, contributing to the peaceful, socially distributed and sustainable development of our societies.”
Capacity-building programmes broaden and strengthen the professional expertise and accelerate progress in the organization activities weather it government or non governmental organization. Capacity building’s main goals are to increase the individual capacity of present and future developmental professionals and leaders and to support the development of institutions and programmes all over the world especially in the social development sector.
9. Need for process documentation, Action research, Monitoring & Evaluation and social audit.
The word “documentation” includes both records and documents. Records are recorded information, regardless of the medium or characteristics, made or received by an organization that is useful in the operation of the organization. Documents explain what an organization plans to do and how it will be accomplished as well as instruct employees how to perform tasks. In this regard professional organizations need to maintain quality and effective documentation along with the action research, monitoring and evaluation and social audit.
Action research is very important component for the effective functioning of the organization. Action research finds out the achievement and failures of the organizations activities. With the help of action research findings, NGOs and other developmental organizations can reform or modify their on going developmental projects, if there are any insufficient methods or policies, social audit is also one of the important elements for the social development. NGOs are the prime players to enhance the awareness about the social audit within the NGOs and other governmental organizations.
10. Need for further promotion of participatory approaches of the development.
Participatory approach of the development facilitates the local communities play a central role in the planning, implementation and funding of activities within participatory developmental programmes. The exact composition of any given programme should be determined in conjunction with them. It is important to ensure that programme activities:
1. do not provoke conflict between resource users (where conflict is unavoidable, conflict resolution mechanisms should be specified early on);
2. do not further isolate marginal households (that may not be able to participate in activities which demand a labour or financial contribution);
3. do not undermine viable indigenous soil and water conservation techniques;
4. are informed by an understanding of existing management practices (e.g. they do not immediately promote group activity if there is no history of communal working);
5. are feasible given current capacity within the community and external organizations; and
6. take into account underlying climatic, hydrological, soil and land use characteristics.
Participatory approaches are more important to succeed the developmental programmes. Participatory approach also enables the social capital for social development.
11. Need for sharing of knowledge, innovative approaches, and people centered approaches. Here, sharing of knowledge is very important component in every aspect of development field. This concept of sharing of knowledge leads to innovative methods in development sector with development organizations. People centered approach, at present, is very much needed in the field of social development.
These above components considered as critical elements for speedy social development. NGOs and other developmental organizations need to develop an innovative approach for social development with the help of sharing of knowledge concept. To get access of sharing of knowledge and to develop innovative approach, NGOs and other developmental organizations need to get extensive trainings on various issues such as Organizational Development, Capacity Building of Organizations and other related to social development. Moreover, NGOs are considered by international developmental organizations and banking as the prime actors for social development.
12. Need for savings, economy of resources and no cost, low cost and cost effective approaches. There is interrelation between the above concepts such as savings, economy of resources and no cost, low cost and cost effective approaches in social development. Developing the society with all minimum needs required the tremendous savings in all sections of the society. Especially in rural areas, women self help groups savings are reached at maximum level. This saving came from only marginalized sections of the society. In this scenario, NGOs and other developmental organization’s efforts utilized cent percent with no cost and low cost effective approaches.
Thus, for overall social development need the above concepts. Here, NGOs and other voluntary or developmental organizations need to enhance the awareness on above issues for better social development.
13. Need for exchange visits, study tours, & National and International exposure.
Exchange visits and study tours at national and international exposure will broaden and strengthen the organizational capacity in various aspects such as management skills, developmental methods and interaction with developmental professionals in the field of national and international and so on.
Moreover, tours and visits also give knowledge in the different areas of social development from different nations especially from developed countries. The developed nation’s technological knowledge will help in faster the social development in developing countries.
14. Need for planning by NGOs working in the sector. As earlier stated by international developmental organizations, NGOs are the critical players in social development. Because, NGOs works in the every aspect of society and they works from grass roots level to international level. So, NGOs can draw the plans for social development effectively.
15. Need for introduction of managerial inputs to the NGOs working in the sector.
For the effective programme implementation and policy-making, NGOs need to acquire the knowledge of effective managerial inputs for the NGOs in the different areas of social development. In the present scenario of social development, every programme of poverty alleviation in rural as well as urban areas and infrastructure development such as roads, drinking water, schools and health centers etc., are implemented and monitored by NGOs. Thus, for effective implementation or benefits reaching to the poor are depends up on NGOs effectiveness.
16. Need for sustainable development approaches. Need for collaboration among peoples institutions, NGOs and Government Institutions.
The international community has recognized the vital importance of cooperation between government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in addressing the social and human development related issues. The importance of government-NGO cooperation was stressed in the recent global and regional conferences concerning the social development. To respond to these mandates, international developmental organizations formulated the process of government-NGO collaboration for social development especially in the area of poverty alleviation programmes. Moreover, World Bank also is stressed on the Government and NGO collaboration for rapid social development in recent international conferences.
17. Need for Multisectoral coordination and convergence of various role players in the sector.
Multi sector coordination and convergence is the effective method for rapid social development. Governments across the world are grappling with appropriate policies to optimize the benefits associated with convergence through multi sectoral coordination. Convergence has emerged as a global phenomenon as a result of digitization which has allowed traditionally distinct services to be offered across interchangeable platforms. These technological trends have been accelerated by the liberalization of markets allowing for the social development.
18. Need for integrated Micro Planning at village level and Holistic development. Integrated Micro planning is the most important concept for the developmental and governmental organizations.
In this aspect, every resource of the village utilized for the overall development of the village through the micro planning. In this process, natural resources and human resources utilized for overall development with the help of NGOs and government organizations.
19. Need for creation of the Model Villages. Model villages especially created for the utilization of information and communication technology.
In the previous years, ICT was utilized for the development of corporate industries and other large size multi national corporations. Now, in the globalized era, ICT is reaching to the every corner of the globe including villages. If ICT need to utilize properly in village development, villages need to be developed as model villages so as to accept the access of developed technologies. NGOs and other developmental organizations need to be developed the facilities in rural areas with coordination with the government organizations.
20. Need for non exploitation, lack of corruption, and lack of hypocritic approaches by a few black sheep in social development.
As late Prime Minister of India, Rajeev Gandhi noticed that exploitation and corruption are the major hurdles for the path of India’s development. This is indicating that the high intention and impact in the social development. NGOs and other developmental organizations and charities and every social group are need to work for the non exploitation, lack of corruption, and lack of hypocritic approaches for the better society and social development.
The inter-relationship between the various activities has to be emphasized and the necessary co-ordination assured both in the Central Government; and in the States. One aspect of this co-ordination would be to secure that legislation relating to social problems follows broadly similar principles. In cases where grants-in-aid are given by a State authority to a private agency, it is desirable to lay down general directions for improving the content of the programmes and their administration. A measure of supervision and inspection should also be provided in order to maintain standards of efficiency.
A major responsibility for organizing activities in different fields of social welfare, like the welfare of women and children, social education, community organization, etc., falls naturally on private voluntary agencies. These private agencies have for long been working in their own humble way and without adequate State aid for the achievement of their objectives with their own leadership, organization and resources.
Any plan for the social and economic regeneration of the country should take into account the service rendered by these private agencies and the State should give them the maximum co-operation in strengthening their efforts. Public co-operation, through these voluntary social service organizations, is capable of yielding valuable results in canalizing private effort for the promotion of social welfare. One of the most important tasks of the State is to conduct a survey of the nature, quality and extent of service rendered by voluntary agencies in different parts of the country, to assess the extent of financial and other aid that they are in need of in order to develop their programmes of work, and to coordinate their activities.
A sum of Rs. 4 crores has been provided as grants-in-aid to voluntary social service organizations for strengthening, improving and extending the existing activities in the field of social welfare and for developing new programmes and carrying out pilot projects. It is envisaged that this fund of Rs. 4 crores should be administered by a board to be set up by the Central Government to which a great deal of administrative authority will be devolved. The board should be predominantly composed of non-officials who have actual experience of field work in promoting voluntary welfare activities.