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There are three broad classifications of corruption, which are however not mutually exclusive:
Petty and Grand corruption
-Petty Corruption:
Practiced on a smaller scale. Defined as the use of public office for private benefit in the course of delivering a pubic service. Usually involves relatively small amounts of money, including bribery (grease money or speed payments) The public servant abuses his/her position by accepting a benefit for what is a routine transaction or approval. The direct victim of this abuse of power is the citizen.
-Grand Corruption:
The most dangerous and covert type of corruption. Instances where policy making, its design and implementation are compromised by corrupt practices. Found where public officers in high positions (such as councilors), in the process of making decisions of significant economic value, routinely demand bribes or kickbacks for ensuring that tenders or contracts are awarded to specific contractors. Occurs at financial, political and administrative centres of power.

 

 

Political and Business corruption:

 

-Business Corruption
Often not regarded as a crime, rather as a means to accelerate business processes. Proponents claim that the end result is not affected; the mechanisms used to achieve the result are simply accelerated; In essence, bureaucracy is bypassed and time is utilised. Includes bribery, insider trading, money laundering, embezzlement, tax evasion and accounting irregularities.

 

-Political Corruption
Occurs predominantly in developing and less developed countries.
Usually associated with the electoral process.
Includes:








voting irregularities
nepotism and cronyism
rule of a few
false political promises
paying journalists for favourable coverage of candidates and parties
influencing voters by the distribution of money, food and/or drink
holding on to power against the will of the people.

 

 

Chaotic and Organised corruption
-Organised Corruption
A well-organised system of corruption in which there is a clear idea:


of whom to bribe;
how much should be offered
and are confident that they will receive the favour in return.

Organised corruption is often perpetrated by crime gangs and syndicates and includes white-collar crime and identity theft.

 

-Chaotic Corruption
A disorganised system where there is no clarity regarding whom to bribe and how much payment should be offered.
There is:
no guarantee that further bribes will not have to be paid to other officials;
no reasonable assurance that the favour will be delivered;
no coordination between the recipients of benefits, with the result

that the price of corruption is often inflated

 

All these distinctions have no value: no form of corruption is better or worse than another.

 

URL- http://www.anticorruption.info/types.htm

 


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